What is 5G technology and how it works

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What is 5G technology? and its working has been a big debate for a long time. The journey to 5G Technology started from 1G. In 1G technology, only calls were possible then 2G came into picture which has compatibility with both messaging and calling. When 3G arose, it became possible to browse the internet and go online. With the arrival and implementation of 4G and 4G LTE technology, high-speed internet became like a knife in butter with amazing downloading and uploading speed.

Now we are onto 5G technology. What is a 5G, how it works, what’s new in this technology are the most interesting questions so far, people want to know more about the 5G technology So let’s just dive into this futuristic 5G technology and know the answers.

5G Technology

The ultimate truth is that researchers don’t know actually what is 5G technology because this technology is still under development. However, it will be implemented by 2020 by many countries including the United States, China, Turkey, and Japan. 5G will be able to handle 1000 times more traffic and will be 10 times faster than 4G LTE. It will download HD videos in less than a second.

5G technology comprises of following 5 sub-technologies

1. Millimeter Waves

The electronic devices in our home use specific frequencies on a radio frequency spectrum typically under 6 GHz. When more devices come in the frequency spectrum the services drop and result in a poor connection. To overcome these researchers are experimenting to use short millimeter waves ranges from 3 GHz to 300 GHz to accommodate more devices on a wider frequency spectrum.

2. Small Cell

As higher frequency millimeter waves can’t pass through obstacles and absorbed by the plants and trees. Small Cell technology provides a solution for it. A large scale cell tower is connected to the multiple small base towers throughout the landscape to provide the full coverage everywhere

3. Massive Mimo

Massive Mimo stands for multiple input and multiple outputs. Today’s 4G cell towers use a dozen of ports to provide the cellular services. Massive Mimo uses hundreds of ports which increases the capacity of the network by the factor of 22 or more. Massive Mimo has its own complications as all the cell towers broadcast information in every direction. Which results in a collision of signal with each other.

4. Beamforming

To overcome the problem of Massive Mimo, beamforming is used to send a focused stream of data to a specific user instead of sending data in all directions from a base tower. Which decreases the interference of the signal and allows the station to handle more incoming and outgoing data streams at once ultimately increases the efficiency.

5. Full Duplex

If we remember the walkie talkie. Only one person can talk at a time, the second person can talk after the first one. To overcome this full-duplex technology was introduced to make the signals transmit and receive at once on the same frequency or on a different frequency. High-speed switches are also used to deviate the signal around on the same frequency.


The bottom line is that 5G technology is under the testing phase needs more time until it reaches us, as it is still under development. It comprises of the above-mentioned technologies, some are new and some are old technologies to make 5G workout. But more technologies are added to the 5G technology. Australia already launched 5G in areas of Sydney and Melbourne. Other countries and operators are planning to launch it by 2020 to 2022.


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He is a freelance writer and a professional mobile app developer who is addicted to learning new things and loves to spread the words.

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