Working of Drone and Science behind it

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Drones are truly a magnificent invention and although they seem quite complex and robust when seen from a layman’s perspective. The science behind them isn’t as hard as you would think it would be. Here we will see the working of Drone.


A standard drone operates on four separate motors installed on all four of its wings. The main components consist of the wings, rotors, motors, battery, electrical converters and plenty of other small components. Although the design of drones varies from model to model. For the sake of simplicity, we have chosen to examine a Protocol Dronium One.

drone schematic

Working of Drone

The working of drone is not that hard. A battery powers all the four motors. The motors are connected separately to their respective rotors on which the blades are attached. All the motors provide torque and spin the blades. The rotating blades suck the air above them and push it below. This creates a hovering effect which can be called “Up thrust”.

The speed of all the separate motors is extremely crucial. All the motors are synchronized with the exact amount of torque and revolutions per second. The reason for this is because any anomaly or difference in speeds in the rotation causes the craft to hover or tilt towards a specific direction which is undesirable.

Following is a schematic which details the movement of a drone

schematic of drone
Schematic of Drone

As shown in the figure, The motors in charge of specific wings are quintessential in the movement of the drone. For example, if a drone has to bank right, its front left and rear left motors increase its speed and generate more thrust, thereby pushing the drone towards the right. Vice versa for left.

The drone operates by default on enough speed to only counteract the weight of the drone itself. In other words, it only hovers as the upthrust cancels the weight of the device.

The shapes of the blades are curved in such a manner that they resemble the cross-section of a turbine blade. They receive the wind in an axial and radial direction and thrust it forward in the axial direction which in turn creates a force that counters the weight. A camera is often mounted in the front but it can also be mounted in the center based on the model used.

In order to ascend or descend the device, the device increases the speed of all its motors slightly above its bodyweight equally to ascend it above. The same principle is used for its descent.

Ability to turn 360 degrees

Another fancy trick often used is the ability to turn 360 degrees in one go. This is done by shutting off one side of motors then another but with a small interval in between which allows the device to fall but in a specific direction. The inertia keeps the body rotating and then all four motors are fired at the same time to balance the falling motor after completing its 360 degrees rotation.


In a nutshell, it can be concluded that drones work on the principle of hovering over the air. They are an invaluable device that adds to any field it enters in whether it be surveillance, photography, videography or just some remote controlling fun. Drones are a safe and relatively cheap way to innovate one’s work environment.

Check our Drone Insurance article to know more about Drone Insurance


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